The natural numbers provide us with the
means to count indefinitely; they thus allow
us to formalise repetition which, in turn, enables us
to add and multiply them, with sensible
results. Turning repetition back on itself extends that to give a
representation of ratios that enable a form of
division. These and related operations are collectively referred to
as arithmetic

.

Much of what's true of the familiar arithmetic of numbers can also be applied in diverse other situations where we have some suitable notion of addition. This gives rise (as for the counting numbers) to repeated addition, which induces a multiplication by the counting numbers; this, in turn, induces a specification of what division by whole numbers would mean, for the things we know how to add. When those things do indeed support such division, we thus obtain the ability to scale our addable things by ratios. When our addable things can be multiplied together, in a suitable sense, the interaction between addition and multiplication gives us more of what we're used to from arithmetic; and an ordering on values refines what that gives us to make it look even more familiar.

Arithmetic is one of the three pillars of basic education,
along with reading and writing. Because these two at least *sound* as if
they start with the letter R, and **ar**ithmetic begins with the
sound of that letter's name, the three are collectively known (slighly jokingly)
as the three Rs

. One could make this name slightly closer to accurate by
referring to arithmetic as reckoning

, which has become a somewhat more
generic term (in ways compatible with it being viewed as a pillar of education)
but has its roots in germanic/nordic words: the
Norwegian regning is a modern cognate of reckoning,
meaning arithmetic (or the bill – in a restaurant, when it's time to pay
and go, one asks for regningen). To complete the fussy
triad, one could use record

in place of write (generalising in a manner
well-suited to modern multi-media authorship) and get an actual three Rs

:
Reading, Recording and Reckoning – all useful skills.

Any context may define addition and/or multiplications as
(usually flat) combinators
on values in some way suitable to its purposes. When both are defined,
multiplication shall typically distribute over addition, v.(a +b) = (v.a)
+(v.b), and multiplicative operators bind more tightly than

additive
ones, so this last may be written v.a +v.b without the parentheses. Addition is
almost always commutative and cancellable; multiplication may (when we leave
zero aside) be both but some contexts make do without either or both of these
properties.

In any context where addition is defined, its bulk action is called sum; applying it to the list ({v}: |n), whose n entries are all one value v, gives us v.n = sum({v}: |n), the result of scaling v by n. In any context where a multiplication is defined, its bulk action is called product and applying it to a list with one entry repeated gives rise to the power function and thus to polynomials.

Neither addition nor multiplication
necessarily has completions for all
pairs of values. The completions of addition
are known as differences and described as subtracting one value from another; a
−b is a value r for which r +b = a, when such a value exists. Since
multiplication need not be abelian, it may need to distinguish completions on
its two sides, so I define ratios in two forms: b under a

, b\a,
right-completes a←b, so b.(b\a) = a, while a over b

, a/b,
left-completes the same pair, so (a/b).b = a.

When we have well-behaved arithmetic along these
lines, it becomes interesting to consider other things that we can scale

by the numbers

of our arithmetic; when we do so, those numbers get to be
described as scalars

and they may be used to scale diverse things,
usually of kinds on which we also have some form of
addition. Linear algebra is the study of what happens
when we use well-behaved basic arithmetic to scale more interesting things that
we know how to add, with a particular focus on the mappings, between those
interesting things and from them to the relatively mundane scalars, that respect
addition and scaling.